DISASTERS AT SEA
Sailors on doomed 19th Century Franklin expedition seeking the Northwest Passage DIDN'T die from lead poisoning
New details have emerged of the doomed voyage of Royal Navy officer, Sir John Franklin, in 1845.
Sir Franklin led two British ships, HMS Terror and HMS Erebus, in search of the last section of the Northwest Passage.
When both ships became stuck in ice, Sir Franklin and all 129 crew members tragically died - but exactly how they met their end has long been a mystery.
The latest research into the mysterious deaths raised serious doubt about the popular belief that lead poisoning played a role in the death of members of the famed Franklin Expedition.
Previous analyses of bone, hair, and soft tissue samples from the remains of crew members found that tissues contained elevated lead levels, suggesting that lead poisoning may have been a major contribution to their demise.
However, questions remained regarding the timing and degree of exposure to lead and, ultimately, the extent to which the crew members may have been impacted.
For the latest study, Synchrotron-based high resolution confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging in partnership with scientists at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron at the University of Saskatchewan and the Advanced Photon Source was used to visualize lead distribution within bone and dental structures at the micro scale.
Researchers said the skeletal microstructural results 'do not support the conclusion that lead played a pivotal role in the loss of Franklin and his crew'.
Researchers have now taken DNA from the skeletal remains of several sailors to identify who the lost souls were.
To their surprise, they discovered that four of the crew were women - a finding that goes against previous reports suggesting an all-male trip.
The study, Franklin expedition lead exposure: New insights from high resolution confocal x-ray fluorescence imaging of skeletal microstructure, was published in PLOS ONE.
A previous study found that tuberculosis, which resulted in adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease), led to the deaths of some of the crew.
The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan and led by University of Michigan dentistry professor Dr Russell Taichman.
He said that for decades, historians and researchers have speculated on several generally accepted causes of death: exposure, scurvy, lead poisoning, botulism, tuberculosis and starvation.
During the Franklin expedition, the ships became trapped in ice pack in 1846 near King William Island, which is above the Arctic Circle in what is now northern Canada.
The ship was well-stocked with canned food, and the crew spent two years on and around the remote island waiting in hard conditions for the ice to melt and free their ships.
Some of the clues left behind included Inuit accounts of emaciated crew members with 'hard, dry and black' mouths.
With this account in mind, Dr Taichman, also a cancer researcher, decided to look more closely at the various cause-of-death theories and how each condition impacts the mouth.
To conduct the research, Dr Taichman and Mark MacEachern, a librarian at U-M's Health Science Library, cross-referenced the crew's physical symptoms with known disease and analyzed 1,718 medical citations.
Dr Taichman was surprised when Addison's disease, which wasn't one of the generally accepted causes of death, kept coming up during the analysis.
'In the old days, the most common reason for Addison's in this country was TB,' Dr Taichman said.
'In this country now, it's immune suppression that leads to Addison's.'
People with Addison's disease have trouble regulating sodium and can become dehydrated, and they can't maintain their weight even when food is available - two conditions of the crew as observed by the Inuit.
Addison's disease also leads to darkening of the skin, which could explain the Inuit accounts of the dark mouths.
While the idea of scurvy among the crew falls in line with the fact that sailors of that time had the disease, that alone does not explain the deaths.
A stronger clue than this was evidence of tuberculosis that was discovered during autopsies of three sailors who died and were buried on a nearby island before the ships were marooned.
Lead poisoning, which was confirmed to a degree by an analysis of recovered bones, could have come from lead solder used fork the food cans and from lead pipes that distilled water for the crew.
'Scurvy and lead exposure may have contributed to the pathogenesis of Addison's disease, but the hypothesis is not wholly dependent on these conditions,' Dr Taichman said.
'The tuberculosis-Addison's hypothesis results in a deeper understanding of one of the greatest mysteries of Arctic exploration.'
The early years of the Twentieth Century was a period of considerable financial turmoil in the transatlantic passenger trade. For the first time, Germany introduced a series of speed record winners and the American railroad owner J Pierpont Morgan decided to acquire control of as many as possible of the major transatlantic shipping lines, through his International Mercantile Marine Company (IMMC), in an attempt to control the pricing of transatlantic emigrant travel to the USA. To this day very little is known about the details of the formation of IMMC, but by 1901 Lord Pirrie of the shipbuilders Harland & Wolff was Morgan’s authorised negotiator and the main contractual arrangements were signed on 4 February 1902. The major wholly owned companies were American, Atlantic Transport, Dominion, Leyland, Red Star and White Star. Hamburg Amerika and Norddeutscher Lloyd were independent partners and Holland America was jointly controlled. The final and essential participant for the success of the venture was Cunard, but it refused to join the party. Pirrie felt that Cunard would be obliged to join the scheme in order to survive. He totally failed to foresee the outraged reaction of the British public to the scheme. There were wild fears that the British merchant marine was being taken over by American/international finance/Imperial German/Jewish interests. Lord Inverclyde of Cunard was able to exploit the public reaction to make the British Government finance two new express liners – Lusitania and Mauretania.
Lusitania departed Liverpool for her maiden voyage on 7 September 1907. At the time she was the largest ocean liner in service and would continue to be so until the introduction of the Mauretania in November that year. During her eight-year service, she made a total of 202 crossings on the Cunard Line's Liverpool-New York route.
In October 1907 Lusitania took the Blue Riband for eastbound crossing from Kaiser Wilhelm II of North German Lloyd, ending Germany's ten-year dominance of the Atlantic. Lusitania averaged 23.99 knots westbound and 23.61 knots eastbound. With the introduction of Mauretania in November 1907, Lusitania and Mauretania continued to swap the Blue Riband. Lusitania made her fastest westbound crossing in 1909, averaging 25.85 knots. In September of that same year, she lost it permanently to Mauretania.
Lusitania and Mauretania were smaller and significantly faster than the White Star Line’s Olympic-class vessels. Both vessels had been launched and had been in service for several years before the Olympic-class ships were ready for the North Atlantic. Unlike the White Star vessels, Cunard's Lusitania had longitudinal bulkheads running along the ship, outboard of the entire length of the boiler and engine rooms, with her coal bunkers on the outside of the vessel. In this area the ship’s transverse bulkheads were only fitted between the longitudinal bulkheads. The British commission investigating the Titanic disaster in 1912, heard testimony on the possible consequences of flooding of coal bunkers lying outside longitudinal bulkheads. Being of considerable length, when flooded these could increase the ship's list and "make the lowering of the boats on the other side impracticable.”
Seven dead sailors 'were trapped ALIVE inside flooding USS Fitzgerald after their comrades were forced to shut them in to stop the stricken vessel from sinking' after collision with cargo ship
- Seven US sailors died as a result of Saturday's collision with a cargo ship just outside Tokyo Bay
- The ACX Crystal's protruding hull punctured the Fitzgerald's hull under the water line - and into a sleeping bay
- It's now believed some of the men may have been trapped alive as hatches closed to contain flooding
- It's not known how the US destroyer was hit by a cargo vessel but the Crystal may have been on autopilot
- The cargo ship sailed away from the stricken vessel for seven miles before it turned around to help
- That's why it only called in the crash 50 minutes later - a discrepancy that vexed investigators yesterday
- The 30,000-ton Crystal outweighs the 8,000-ton US ship; it's speculated the crew didn't know about the hit
All but seven members of a U.S. Navy minesweeper's crew were taken off the ship Friday after it was trapped in a coral reef in the Philippines and could not be freed. The ship ran aground Thursday while in transit through the Tubbataha National Marine Park, a coral sanctuary in the Sulu Sea, 640 kilometers (400 miles) southwest of Manila. There were no injuries or oil leaks, and Philippine authorities were trying to evaluate damage to the protected coral reef, designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Trapped: The USS Guardian ran aground in the western Philippines on its way to a port call in Puerto Princesa City. The U.S. Navy's 7th Fleet said 72 of the 79 crew of the USS Guardian were transferred to a military support vessel by small boat. A small team of personnel will remain aboard and attempt to free the ship with minimal environmental impact, the statement said. The remaining seven sailors, including the commanding and the executive officer, will also be transferred if conditions become unsafe. Philippine officials said the weather was choppy Friday with strong winds and rough seas. The World Wide Fund for Nature Philippines said that according to an initial visual inspection, the 68-meter- (74-yard-) long, 1,300-ton Guardian damaged at least 10 meters (yards) of the reef.
Ghost ship: 72 of the ship's 79 crew members were removed after the Navy was unable to free it from a coral reef.Aerial photographs provided by the Philippine military showed the ship's bow sitting atop corals in shallow turquoise waters. The stern was floating in the deep blue waters. The Navy said the cause of the grounding, which took place around 2 a.m. Thursday, was under investigation. Angelique Songco, head of the government's Protected Area Management Board, said it was unclear how much of the reef was damaged. She said the government imposes a fine of about $300 per square meter (yard) of damaged coral. In 2005, the environmental group Greenpeace was fined almost $7,000 after its flagship struck a reef in the same area.
Searching for answers: Naval officials are still investigating how the USS Guardian became trapped. Songco said that park rangers were not allowed to board the ship for inspection and were told to contact the U.S. Embassy in Manila. Their radio calls to the ship were ignored, she said. The U.S. Navy statement said that 'the government of the Philippines was promptly informed of the incident and is being updated regularly.' Philippine military spokesman Maj. Oliver Banaria said the U.S. Navy did not request assistance from the Philippines. U.S. Navy ships have stepped up visits to Philippine ports for refueling, rest and recreation, plus joint military exercises as a result of a redeployment of U.S. forces in the Asia-Pacific region. The Philippines, a U.S. defense treaty ally, has been entangled in a territorial dispute with China in the South China Sea.
The true scale of damage to doomed USS Fitzgerald is revealed: New photos show the hole beneath the waterline that was punched by cargo ship in crash that killed seven sailors
Startling new photographs have been released showing previously unseen damage to the USS Fitzgerald.
The destroyer collided with a cargo ship off Japan's Izu Peninsula on June 17, causing the death of seven sailors.
The new pictures, which were released by the Seventh Fleet based in Yokosuka, were taken while the ship was docked and sailors were inspecting the damage. For the first time, damage down to the hull below the waterline is clearly visible.
A huge hole could be seen in the hull of the ship, which was being patched up and repaired by metal plating and large steel bars being used to secure the plates.
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New photographs released by the Navy show the damage caused to the USS Fitzgerald in its deadly collision with a cargo ship last month
The USS Fitzgerald is seen in this photograph taken on July 11 in Yokosuka, Japan, as it sits in a dry dock at the naval base
Officials are seen on July 11, 2017, in Yokosuka, Japan, inspecting the damage done to the USS Fitzgerald while it is in a dry dock
The new photos emerged after CNN reported five of the seven soldiers killed in the accident were almost instantly 'incapacitated', and died quickly as a result. However, the other two likely lived much longer and attempted to escape the flooding, but an official told the network 'the ship somehow lost communication' with the duo.
The Navy announced last month it was investigating the crash involving the destroyer and the ACX Crystal. The Crystal slammed into the side of the US destroyer off the Japanese coast while much of the rest of the crew were asleep.
The cargo ship's bow, which protrudes underneath the water, punctured the steel armor of the ship, opening a hole into the quarters where more than 100 sailors slept.
Emergency hatches were closed on the compromised berthing compartments to stop the ship from sinking.
Pictures taken earlier this week and released by the US Navy gave a fresh look at some of the damage done in the collision last month
The USS Fitzgerald is seen in a dock in Yokosuka, Japan, before it was moved to a dry dock so the damage done in last month's crash could be examined
In this handout provided by the US Navy, the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62) sits in Dry Dock 4 at Fleet Activities (FLEACT) Yokosuka
In the aftermath of the accident, David Dykhoff - a retired Navy captain - said: 'The mentality is that you're going to fight any catastrophes, any casualties, where they occur and preserve the rest of the ship.
'And I guarantee that anybody would do everything they could.'
However Stanley Rehm, the uncle of Fire Controlman 1st Class Gary Leo Rehm Jr - one of the seven men lost in the crash - claims his nephew had to be sacrificed to save the rest of the crew.
Gary Rehm, 37, rescued more than a dozen of his colleagues as the waters flooded in, and had gone down again to search for more when the hatch was shut on him, Stanley told Fox 8 Cleveland last month.
This picture shows the guided missile destroyer USS Fitzgerald off the Shimoda coast after it collided with a massive cargo ship
The red line shows the route of the Crystal on June 17; at 1:30am it struck the Fitzgerald before continuing eastward. It then made a U-turn and returned to the area near the collision at around 2:25am
The Japanese Coast Guard said the collision occurred at 1:30am - and then it sailed on for seven miles before returning to the Fitzgerald at 2:25am, at which point they reported the incident. The 50-minute discrepancy caused confusion on Monday
The damage to the Crystal can be seen in these new photographs - but the real danger to the Fitzgerald was located beneath the waterline, where the Crystal's bulbous bow is located. The ships crashed just off the coast of Japan
Seven men died aboard the Fitzgerald (pictured) when it was struck on June 17; it's possible that some of them were trapped alive as their crewmates closed hatches to stem flooding
The collision led to severe damage on the Fitzgerald (pictured on June 17) both above and below the waterline. The Crystal was built in South Korea and registered in Japan, but its crew and captain are all from the Philippines
'His dad told me that he saved 20,' Stanley said. 'He went back down to where the other ones were at to save them.
'The ship was flooding so fast they had to close the hatch to save the ship,' Stanley said. 'They had to sacrifice the few to save the many. Guess he died a hero.'
The Fitzgerald's captain, Bryce Benson, was asleep when the collision occurred at 1:30am, but survived the horrific incident.
He was airlifted to hospital after the accident, and was reportedly in stable condition on Saturday. In total three sailors were injured; all have since been released from a Navy hospital.
The seven who died are: Dakota Kyle Rigsby, 19; Carlos Victor Ganzon Sibayan, 23; Xavier Alex Martin, 24; Shingo Alexander Douglass, 25; Rehm Jr, 37; Ngoc T Truong Huynh, 25; and Noe Hernandez, 26.
She is one of the most finely-tuned and sophisticated pieces of technology in the US Navy, designed to hunt down and destroy even the best-hidden of enemy sea mines. But apparently the USS Guardian isn't quite so efficient at spotting coral reefs, as it proved while minesweeping in the Sulu Sea, 400 miles southwest of Manila, in the Philippines. The state-of-the-art minesweeper crashed onto the Tubbataha Reef, a World Heritage Site, during a training run on Thursday where it has become stubbornly wedged. Navy chiefs have blamed an inaccurate map as a possible cause for the calamity, which conservationists say has severely damaged one of the world's most treasured ocean beauty spots.
Run aground: Apparently, the USS Guardian isn't very good at spotting coral reefs, as it proved yesterday when it ran aground in the Sulu Sea, 400 miles southwest of Manila, in the Philippines. All 79 officers and crew of the USS Guardian were forced to abandon ship as several support vessels continued to conduct salvage operations that minimize environmental effects to the reef today. The Navy said in a statement that a review of Digital Nautical Charts, which are used for safe navigation by all U.S. Navy ships, found they contained inaccurate data and may have been a factor in the Guardian's grounding. As a result, Navigator of the Navy Rear Adm. Jonathan White released precautionary guidance to all Pacific Fleet ships, saying that 'initial review of navigation data indicates an error in the location of Tubbataha Reef' in the Philippines.
Stuck: Navy chiefs have blamed an inaccurate map as a possible cause after the minesweeper hit the Tubbataha Reef, a World Heritage Site, during a training run on Thursday
Trouble ahead: Navy chiefs have blamed an inaccurate map as a possible cause for the calamity, which conservationists say has severely damaged one of the world's most treasured ocean beauty spots. 'While the erroneous navigation chart data is important information, no one should jump to conclusions,' said Pacific Fleet spokesman Capt. Darryn James. 'It is critical that the US Navy conduct a comprehensive investigation that assesses all the facts surrounding the Guardian grounding.' The Avenger-class ship had just completed a port call in Subic Bay, a former American naval base west of the capital, Manila, and was en route to Indonesia and then on to East Timor to participate in a training exercise when it hit the reef, about 80 miles southeast of Palawan Island.
When training runs go bad: The Avenger-class ship (marked '5') had just completed a port call in Subic Bay, a former American naval base west of the capital, Manila, and was en route to Indonesia and then on to East Timor
Location: The US Navy ship was minesweeping in the Sulu Sea, 400 miles southwest of Manila, in the Philippines. The World Wide Fund for Nature Philippines said that according to an initial visual inspection, the 68-meter-long, 1,300-ton Guardian damaged at least 10 metres of the reef, which UNESCO designated as a World Heritage Site. It is part of Southeast Asia's Coral Triangle, a huge stretch of ocean that contains most of the world's coral species, reefs, and more than 3,000 species of fish. Angelique Songco, head of the government's Protected Area Management Board, said the government imposes a fine of about $300 per square metre of damaged coral, plus other fees. In 2005, the environmental group Greenpeace was fined almost $7,000 after its flagship struck a reef in the same area. Songco blamed the Guardian for turning away park rangers who wanted to board the minesweeper, but the Navy said it was cooperating with the Philippine government, a key US defence ally.Presidential spokeswoman Abigail Valte said the government will observe the law governing the Tubbataha Reef, but right now 'the primary concern is extricating the ship out of the reef with minimal damage.'
On the night of the 27th of February, the 10,192-ton ferry sailed out of Manila for Cagayan de Oro Cityvia Bacolod City and Iloilo City with 899 recorded passengers and crew aboard. Atelevision set containing an 8-pound (3.6 kilograms) TNT bomb had been placed on board in the lower, more crowded decks.
An hour after its 11 p.m. sailing, just off either El Fraile or Corregidor Island an explosion tore through the vessel, starting a fire that engulfed the ship and caused the confirmed deaths of 63 people while another 53 were recorded as missing and presumed dead. As the fire spread across the vessel most of the survivors jumped into the sea or boarded rescue boats and, by the 29th of February, officials had accounted for 565 of the 744 recorded passengers and all but two of the 155 crew members.
In the days following the blast, the recovery of the dead and missing, calculated at around 180 on February 29, would be slow. Officials stated the missing may have been trapped inside the blazing ferry, have drowned in Manila Bay and that others may had been picked up by fishing boats. The recovery of bodies would take several months, with only four bodies recovered by Coast Guard divers from the half-submerged ferry in the first week alone, despite it having been towed to shallower waters near Mariveles town, west of Manila. At least another 12 bodies, some displaying blast injuries, were recovered by divers in the days up until the 7th. Eventually, 63 bodies would be recovered while another 53 would remain missing, presumed dead. Despite claims from various terrorist groups, the blast was initially thought to have been an accident, caused by a gas explosion, and sabotage was ruled out initially.
However, stated Philippine media reports, at the marine board of inquiry hearing in late March, 2004, a safety supervisor with the ship’s owner,WG&A, testified that about 150 survivors told him an explosion took place in the tourist section around the general area of bunk 51. The Captain of the ferry, Ceferino Manzo, testified in the same hearing that the entire tourist section was engulfed in “thick black smoke [that] smelled like gunpowder.”After divers righted the ferry, five months after it sank, they found evidence of a bomb blast. A man named Redondo Cain Dellosa, aRajah Sulaiman Movement member, confessed to planting a bomb, triggered by a timing device, on board for the Abu Sayyaf guerrillagroup. He held a ticket on the ferry for bunk 51B, where the bomb was placed, and disembarked before the ship’s departure.
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo announced on October 11, 2004, that investigators had concluded that the explosion had been caused by a bomb. She said six suspects had been arrested in connection with the bombing and that the masterminds,Khadaffy Janjalani andAbu Sulaiman, were still at large. It was believed that Abu Sayyaf bombed Superferry 14 because the company that owned it,WG&A, did not comply with a letter demanding USD 1 million in protection money
THE 2004 SUPERFERRY BOMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES: The Philippine Coast Guard and other vessels fight a fire aboard "Superferry 14" Friday, Feb. 27, 2004, 70 kilometers (45 miles) southwest of Manila. Coast guard Rear Adm. Danilo Abinoja said at least 665 people had been rescued and one body recovered. Another eight people were injured. (AP Photo) #
THE 2004 SUPERFERRY BOMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES: A silhouette of the rescue boat and the Superferry as Philippines Coast Guard search operation continues, 01 March 2004, for more than 140 passenger still missing. Philippine President Gloria Arroyo 01 March rejected Muslim guerrilla group's claim that it bombed the passenger ferry which caught fire last week. (JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images) #
THE 2004 SUPERFERRY BOMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES: A ferry survivor carries her two children on their arrival at the Manila port, 27 February 2004 after they were rescued from the burning Superferry 14. One person died while 200 people are unaccounted for when fire broke out after an explosion in the engine room around 1:00 am. (JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)#
THE 2004 SUPERFERRY BOMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES: The half-submerged Superferry 14 is shown March 4, 2004 in Mariveles, Philippines. Divers recovered 6 bodies in the afternoon from the ferry that caught fire in a possible terrorist attack. (Photo by David Greedy/Getty Images) #
Most Tragic Acts of Terrorism in History – 2004 Super Ferry 14 Bombing: Philippines
The Philippines had also suffered numerous terrorist attacks one of the most notable and most tragic attacks occurred on February 27, 2004 and was known as the SuperFerry 14 bombings.
THE 2004 SUPERFERRY BOMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES: Philippines Coast Guard members prepare to search the half-submerged Superferry 14 for missing persons March 4, 2004 in Mariveles, Philippines. Divers recovered 6 bodies in the afternoon from the ferry that caught fire in a possible terrorist attack. (Photo by David Greedy/Getty Images) #
Lavilla is one of the top ideologues in the Rajah Solaiman Movement, a group of former Christians who converted to Islam and claim affiliation with the al Qaeda-linked regional terrorist groups Jemaah Islamiyah and Abu Sayyaf, Blancaflor said.
Blancaflor said authorities suspect Lavilla helped plot the bombing of a superferry near Manila on February 27, 2004, in which at least 116 people died. They believe Lavilla also helped plan the bombing of a bus behind the Intercontinental Hotel in Manila on February 14, 2005, an attack that killed at least four people and came to be known as the Valentine's Day Bombing.
The bus bombing was part of a trio of attacks that happened that day. The two other blasts, both fatal, happened in the southern cities of General Santos and Davao.
Blancaflor said he suspects Lavilla was also involved in the planning of several bomb attacks on the U.S. Embassy in Manila, all of which were thwarted by Philippine police.
In describing Lavilla's arrest in Bahrain, Blancaflor said only that police there arrested him as they were enforcing U.N. Security Council resolution 1276, which imposed air travel and financial sanctions on the Taliban.
Jemaah Islamiyah aims to create a Muslim "superstate" across much of Southeast Asia. Authorities blame the group for the Bali, Indonesia nightclub bombings of 2002, which killed more than 200 mostly Western tourists.
The group is also suspected of subsequent attacks on the Australian Embassy and J.W. Marriott hotel, both in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta.
The Abu Sayyaf group is one of several Islamic militant groups fighting the government in and around the southern Philippine island of Mindanao.
Fireworks explode over Victoria Harbour to celebrate the 63rd anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, in Hong Kong on October 1, 2012. The anniversary is also known as National Day. This is the event passengers aboard the Lamma IV had sailed to view. (Antony Dickson/AFP/Getty Images) #
Rescue crews search for passengers in waters near Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island, on October 1, 2012 in Hong Kong. (Lam Yik Fei/Getty Images) #
Rescuers check on the half submerged Lamma IV, after it collided Monday night near Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012. Authorities rescued 101 people after the collision. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung) #
Rescue crews search for passengers in waters near Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island, on October 1, 2012. (Lam Yik Fei/Getty Images) #
A young survivor of the ferry collision is carried by a rescuer in Hong Kong, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
A survivor, supported by rescuers, is taken ashore after a collision involving two vessels in Hong Kong, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
A survivor of the ferry collision is carried by rescuers in Hong Kong, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
Search and rescue teams search the waters around the partially submerged Lamma IV (center) off Hong Kong's Lamma island, on October 2, 2012, the morning after it collided with a Hong Kong ferry killing 37 people. (Antony Dickson/AFP/Getty Images) #
Divers from a firefighting team retrieve a body near the Lamma IV, unseen, after it collided and sank Monday night, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
Police and rescue officers carry the body of a deceased passenger at the Marine Police Base in Aberdeen, on October 2, 2012 in Hong Kong. (Lam Yik Fei/Getty Images) #
The bow of the Lamma IV, partially submerged during rescue operations on October 2, 2012, the morning after it collided with a Hong Kong ferry killing 37 people. (Antony Dickson/AFP/Getty Images) #
A relative cries as she leaves a public mortuary holding the bodies of those who died in a boat accident near Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012 in Hong Kong. (Lam Yik Fei/Getty Images) #
The Sea Smooth ferry with its bow badly damaged sits docked at the Lamma Island pier on October 2, 1012 following a collision with the Lamma IV in Hong Kong waters late on October 1. (Antony Dickson/AFP/Getty Images) #
Workers check on the re-floated Lamma IV, which sank the previous night after colliding with a ferry near Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung) #
A worker examines the salvaged Lamma IV, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung) #
A man takes a photo from the beach as a boat which sank earlier after a collision is kept stable by tugboats off Hong Kong's Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012. (Reuters/Bobby Yip) #
Relatives of the victims of the ferry collision burn incense as they pay their respects in Hong Kong, on October 2, 2012. (Reuters/Tyrone Siu) #
Relatives of the victims throw paper money Tuesday, October 2, 2012 as they pay tribute to the ill-fated people aboard the Lamma IV that sank Monday night near Lamma Island. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
Relatives of victims in a fatal ferry collision pay their respects by throwing paper money into the waters off Hong Kong, on October 2, 2012. (Reuters/Tyrone Siu) #
Relatives of the victims pay tribute to loved ones lost aboard a boat that sank Monday night near Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012. (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) #
Two men watch from a peak as the Lamma IV is kept stable by tugboats off Hong Kong's Lamma Island, on October 2, 2012. (Reuters/Bobby Yip)
|THE WRECKS OF: Costa Concordia AND TK BREMMEN|