OLD WAR MOVIES

OLD WAR MOVIES

OLD WAR MOVIES

...The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of great political importance: The growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power and the growth of corporate propaganda against democracy.

Friday, March 24, 2017




Are U.S. Aircraft Carriers worth the money for defense and offensive operation?

Image result for ekranoplan conceptImage result for ekranoplan aircraft carrier


Smaller ships can do the job in greater numbers. Although there has been much speculation about emerging threats to aircraft carriers, the Navy invests heavily in new offensive and defensive technologies aimed at countering such dangers.  The most important advance of recent years has been the netting together of all naval assets in an area so that sensors and weapons can be used to maximum effect.  Initiatives like the Naval Integrated Fire Control - Counter Air program link together every available combat system in a seamless, fast-reacting defensive screen that few adversaries can penetrate.  Numerous other advances are being introduced, from the penetrating recon capabilities of stealthy fighters to shipboard jamming systems to advanced obscurants that confuse the guidance systems of homing missiles.

An obsession with aircraft carriers may end the the United States' naval dominance if military leaders don't change their ways, a report warned today. It says China, Russia and other countries have 'increasingly lethal and precise' weapons and tactics that can destroy carriers, breaking the backbone of the Navy.

Aircraft carriers are at the core of the Navy's arsenal. Not only are the fearsome juggernauts incredibly powerful and difficult to take down, there are also many of them: ten in active service. That's the exact same number of active carriers that every other country in the world has, combined.But reliance on the behemoths has made the navy complacent, and in serious danger of being taken down by new weapons and tactics displayed by other countries, according to Red Alert: The Growing Threat to U.S. Aircraft Carriers, a report released by bipartisan think-tank Center for a New American Security. 


These flying ships can carry 6 F35 or more depending on the designed size. For armaments and defense,150 kw lasers with, some form of energy storage can be acommodated. The demands of a pulsed load on the order of hundreds of kilowatts lasers in this amphivious flying crafts,with a system for storing power for on-demand use by a laser weapon that can fire indefinitely. Rechargeable by batteries or flywheels.



The service would ideally be able to recharge a laser's energy reserves almost instantaneously, allowing the laser to fire indefinitely.While that would be the ideal scenario one of the firms developing the technologies has a system that can fire 'well over 100 shots' before needing to be recharged. 


See how the huge footprint of a modern Aircraft Carrier navigating with its armada of escorts in the Persian Gulf would be a tempting target for enemy missles. 20 equivalent cost of an aircraft carrier by these flying ships carrying fighter jets with its array of laser weapons can do a much better job of dominating the Persian Gulf.



As American sailors watched the first Revolutionary Guard vessels appeared on the horizon of the Strait of Hormuz, beginning a daylong face-off that has become familiar to both Iranian paramilitary and U.S. naval forces that pass through the narrow mouth of the Persian Gulf.

But these routine, if tense encounters may soon grow even more perilous.

President Donald Trump has warned that Iranian forces will be blown out of the water if they challenge U.S. naval vessels, while American commanders describe the Guard as increasingly unprofessionally with rocket launches and provocative actions.

Iranian hard-liners, still smarting over the nuclear detente with the West, may see a military confrontation as a way to derail moderate President Hassan Rouhani heading into the country's May presidential election.

A U.S. aircraft carrier, the USS George H.W. Bush approached the Gulf through the Strait of Hormuzm  a strategic waterway separating Iran from U.S.-backed Arab states, for the first time since President Donald Trump took office two months ago
A U.S. aircraft carrier, the USS George H.W. Bush approached the Gulf through the Strait of Hormuzm  a strategic waterway separating Iran from U.S.-backed Arab states, for the first time since President Donald Trump took office two months ago

Crew reposition an E-2C Hawkeye on the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz. The arrival of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to the Persian Gulf marks the first such deployment under President Donald Trump
Crew reposition an E-2C Hawkeye on the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz. The arrival of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to the Persian Gulf marks the first such deployment under President Donald Trump
The pilot of an F-18 fighter jet prepares to take off from the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz. President  Trump has warned that Iranian forces will be blown out of the water if they challenge U.S. naval vessels
The pilot of an F-18 fighter jet prepares to take off from the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz. President Trump has warned that Iranian forces will be blown out of the water if they challenge U.S. naval vessels
The pilot of an F-18 fighter jet salutes as he prepares to take off from the USS George H.W. Bush. The Nimitz-class, nuclear-powered carrier left her homeport of Norfolk, Virginia, on January 21 - Trump's first full day in office
The pilot of an F-18 fighter jet salutes as he prepares to take off from the USS George H.W. Bush. The Nimitz-class, nuclear-powered carrier left her homeport of Norfolk, Virginia, on January 21 - Trump's first full day in office
What happens next could hinge on the Strait of Hormuz, through which a third of all oil trade by sea passes.
'What reason were they to be in an international corridor, other than to harass us?' Rear Adm. Kenneth Whitesell, commander of Carrier Strike Group 2, said of the Iranian actions. 'Was today the day they were going to come out and potentially deploy kinetic actions against us?'
Whitesell oversees the strike group that has the USS George H.W. Bush at its heart. The Nimitz-class, nuclear-powered carrier left her homeport of Norfolk, Virginia, on January 21 - Trump's first full day in office. Its passage through the strait closes a roughly three-month gap in which America had no aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf. A similar gap happened in the fall of 2015 - the first for the U.S. since 2007.
Its overall mission is providing a base for airstrikes against the Islamic State group. The ship's contingent of F-18 fighter jets began bombing the extremists in February as the vessel transited through the Mediterranean Sea.
The pilot of an E-2C Hawkeye watches flight operations on the USS George H.W. Bush. Its passage through the strait closes a roughly three-month gap in which America had no aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf
The pilot of an E-2C Hawkeye watches flight operations on the USS George H.W. Bush. Its passage through the strait closes a roughly three-month gap in which America had no aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf
Crew man the flight deck of the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz through which a third of all oil trade by sea passes
Crew man the flight deck of the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz through which a third of all oil trade by sea passes
Crew examine the propeller of an E-2C Hawkeye on the USS George H.W. Bush. Its overall mission is providing a base for airstrikes against the Islamic State group
Crew examine the propeller of an E-2C Hawkeye on the USS George H.W. Bush. Its overall mission is providing a base for airstrikes against the Islamic State group
But serving as a counterbalance to Iran and assuring America's Gulf Arab allies in the region also remains vital, Whitesell said. While acknowledging that Trump and Defense Secretary Jim Mattis have strong suspicions about Iran, he said there hadn't been any change in his orders in how to deal with the Islamic Republic.
'The political aspect of the United States has kind of been in our wake,' the rear admiral said.
Threats, however, remain. After a Saudi naval vessel came under attack from a purported 'drone' boat off the coast of war-torn Yemen, in the Bab al-Mandeb Strait in the Red Sea, U.S. vessels in this strike group changed their routine to protect themselves while passing, said Capt. Will Pennington, the commanding officer of the Bush.
'Some of our escort ships arrived in advance of us and provided security in that Bab al-Mandeb and a few lagged a few days behind so our coverage of that area was extended,' Pennington said. 'That same threat could exist here in the Strait of Hormuz or any other strait.'
Small vessel attacks also include the October 2000 boat-borne bombing by al-Qaida on the USS Cole, which killed 17 American sailors while the ship was refueling in Yemen's Aden harbor.
Crew members work on an F-18 fighter jet abroad the USS George H.W. Bush. The worry grows for U.S. officials as the Navy recorded 35 instances of what it describes as 'unsafe and/or unprofessional' interactions with Iranians forces in 2016
Crew members work on an F-18 fighter jet abroad the USS George H.W. Bush. The worry grows for U.S. officials as the Navy recorded 35 instances of what it describes as 'unsafe and/or unprofessional' interactions with Iranians forces in 2016
A sailor tosses a spray can in the air while working on an F-18 fighter jet on the USS George H.W. Bush. Iranian forces view the American presence in the Gulf and especially the Strait of Hormuz as a provocation by itself
A sailor tosses a spray can in the air while working on an F-18 fighter jet on the USS George H.W. Bush. Iranian forces view the American presence in the Gulf and especially the Strait of Hormuz as a provocation by itself
An F-18 fighter jet flies over the USS George H.W. Bush. The ship's contingent of F-18 fighter jets began bombing the extremists in February as the vessel transited through the Mediterranean Sea
An F-18 fighter jet flies over the USS George H.W. Bush. The ship's contingent of F-18 fighter jets began bombing the extremists in February as the vessel transited through the Mediterranean Sea
The worry grows for U.S. officials as the Navy recorded 35 instances of what it describes as 'unsafe and/or unprofessional' interactions with Iranians forces in 2016, compared to 23 in 2015. Before this week, there had been six, said Lt. Ian McConnaughey, a spokesman for the U.S. 5th Fleet, based on the nearby island of Bahrain.
Of the incidents last year, the worst involved Iranian forces capturing 10 U.S. sailors and holding them overnight. It became a propaganda coup for Iran's hard-liners, as Iranian state television repeatedly aired footage of the Americans on their knees, their hands on their heads.
Iranian forces view the American presence in the Gulf and especially the Strait of Hormuz as a provocation by itself. They in turn have accused the U.S. Navy of unprofessional behavior.
At dawn on Tuesday, the Bush and its strike force entered the strait, which at its narrowest point is 21 miles wide, in the waters between Iran and Oman.
A Rihanna song playing over the loudspeaker on the deck was quickly cut off at the first sighting of Iranian vessels.
Iranian authorities demanded the Americans leave the area, though both the U.S. Navy and a nearby Omani warship said the strike group was in Omani waters.
Captain Will Pennington, the commanding officer of the USS George H.W. Bush, greets journalists as the ship travels through the Persian Gulf. Iranian authorities demanded the Americans leave the area
Captain Will Pennington, the commanding officer of the USS George H.W. Bush, greets journalists as the ship travels through the Persian Gulf. Iranian authorities demanded the Americans leave the area
A U.S. Navy sailor stands in a driving wind striking the USS George H.W. Bush. The Iranian military have accused the U.S. Navy of unprofessional behavior
A U.S. Navy sailor stands in a driving wind striking the USS George H.W. Bush. The Iranian military have accused the U.S. Navy of unprofessional behavior
Crew reposition an F-18 fighter jet on the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz
Crew reposition an F-18 fighter jet on the USS George H.W. Bush as it travels toward the Strait of Hormuz
The Iranians had speedboats and other craft, several displaying the Kalashnikov-rifle emblem of the Revolutionary Guard. U.S. helicopters circled overhead as some of the Iranians used telephoto lens and video cameras to film the carrier - while international journalists invited onboard the Bush filmed them.
On the bridge, a sailor called out: 'There's nine. Reports of weapons being loaded.'
But the Iranians merely stood alongside their machine guns, keeping their distance while telling the American forces to leave the area.
Hours later, the carrier exited the strait and entered the waters of the Persian Gulf, leaving the Iranians behind.
Still, Whitesell rated the day's danger a 7.5 out of 10, due to fog and other issues compounding the possible threat the Iranian vessels posed.
'They had every one of those weapons manned and we also have video data that they were arming every one of those weapons,' he told journalists.
Minutes later, Whitesell excused himself to return to the bridge. More Revolutionary Guard boats had emerged from the fog.  



Threatened: Aircraft carriers like the Harry S Truman (pictured) are the backbone of the US Navy, but other countries like China and Russia, have ways to disable or even annihilate carriers in combat, a report says


Killer: This DF-21D missile, shown during a parade in Beijing last year, is said to be a 'carrier killer' and would be used as part of the 'area denial' tactics, which block off certain areas to carriers for fear of obliteration


Killer: This DF-21D missile, shown during a parade in Beijing last year, is said to be a 'carrier killer' and would be used as part of the 'area denial' tactics, which block off certain areas to carriers for fear of obliteration


Deployed: China's HQ-9 missile launchers were identified in the report as being an area-denial threat, and were deployed onto a disputed island in the South China Sea this month


Deployed: China's HQ-9 missile launchers were identified in the report as being an area-denial threat, and were deployed onto a disputed island in the South China Sea this monthThe core problem that the US Navy faces, the report says, is that other countries are perfecting 'area denial' methods of blocking off combat areas so that US carriers and their planes can't get close enough to fight effectively without suffering severe damage or even destruction.They're doing that with newer aircraft, drone technology, submarines and even carrier-busting super missiles that have been developed in recent years. Last month, Iran showed off secret drone footage of the 18-year-old US carrier Harry S Truman.The newest US carrier currently in active service is the nine-year-old George HW Bush. The oldest is the Nimitz, which took to the sea in 1975.The US is currently constructing two more carriers, the Gerald R Ford and the John F Kennedy, which will be launched this year and in 2020, respectively. A third, the Enterprise, is scheduled for 2025.But, says the report, the danger is more immediate. China is 'the pacing threat' right now, with two carrier-busting missiles - the DF-21D and DF-26 - that 'represent a significant threat to the carrier,' being able to take down ships and even reach Guam, a US territory about 2,000 miles away from the Chinese coast.And Beijing showed willingness to set out areas of strong control around its borders with weaponized artificial islands last year, while placing HQ-9 anti-aircraft missiles - a type specifically identified in the report - on the disputed Woody Island in the South China Sea earlier this month.That's especially dangerous to US carriers right now because current tactics see them sailing closer to battles than they used to, so that they can send out multiple short-term air attacks rather than relying on their long-distance weapons. 


Parade: This military parade, held by Beijing in commemoration of WWII, was a show of Chinese military might, with many missile launchers on display


Parade: This military parade, held by Beijing in commemoration of WWII, was a show of Chinese military might, with many missile launchers on display


Growler: Russia deployed its SA-21 'Growler' anti-aircraft missiles to Syria last year, giving them coverage over the entire country and much of the eastern Mediterranean. Such weapons are essential for area denial


Growler: Russia deployed its SA-21 'Growler' anti-aircraft missiles to Syria last year, giving them coverage over the entire country and much of the eastern Mediterranean. Such weapons are essential for area denial


Drone: The USS Harry S Truman was secretly filmed by an Iranian drone last month, with footage being broadcast on Iranian television


Drone: The USS Harry S Truman was secretly filmed by an Iranian drone last month, with footage being broadcast on Iranian televisionUS confirms Iran flew drone straight at USS Harry Truman
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The new weapons owned by China and other countries, could be used along with submarines, drones and other armaments designed to restrict the movement of carriers and 'launch a saturation attack against the carrier from a variety of platforms and directions. Such an attack would be difficult - if not impossible - to defend against.'
Russia is also named as a threat in the report, which points out that it made much of the technology used by China, as is Iran. All three countries are noted to be building up arms that can 'place constraints' on US carrier operation.
In November last year, Russia deployed its high-tech SA-21 'Growler' anti-aircraft missiles to Syria, allowing them to target planes over the country and much of the eastern Mediterranean - exactly the kind of weapon that could be combined into an area-denial attack.Solutions given by the report include increasing the distance at which aircraft on the carrier can travel before fighting, shifting money away from carriers and towards submarines and other underwater vehicles, and focusing on future tech like the US Navy's railgun, which can fire shells at seven times speed of sound. 
Regardless, says the report, the US needs to quit its obsession with carriers 'and explore innovative options for future operations and force structure.
'If the United States is to maintain its military superiority well into the future, it cannot afford to do otherwise.'


Ground-to-air: Ground-to-air missile launchers such as this Russian Triump S-400 are combined with anti-ship missiles, submarines, drones and other technology to make an area-denial web 


Ground-to-air: Ground-to-air missile launchers such as this Russian Triump S-400 are combined with anti-ship missiles, submarines, drones and other technology to make an area-denial web 


Waiting: Once an area has been set up for 'denial,' carriers must choose whether they want to engage effectively and risk destruction, or fight less effectively from a distance


Waiting: Once an area has been set up for 'denial,' carriers must choose whether they want to engage effectively and risk destruction, or fight less effectively from a distance



HULKING GIANT: The USS Gerald R. Ford – by the numbers 

The U.S. Navy and Huntington Ingalls, the military shipbuilding contractor that built the USS Gerald R. Ford, provided a collection of statistics about its next-generation wonder:

  • The Ford is 1,106 feet long and nearly 250 feet tall. It will carry at least 75 aircraft.
  • The Ford weighs about 100,000 tons. Overall, building the carrier involved 4 million pounds of weld metal.
  • It took 200,000 gallons of paint to cover the entire ship, enough to paint the White House 350 times.
  • The Ford is expected to house 4,660 sailors when it's fully outfitted and commissioned over the summer. It can produce 400,000 gallons of fresh water and 15,000 meals every day.
  • The U.S. Navy expects to save $4 billion over the next five decades because the Ford requires less maintenance than its predecessors
  • The new carrier's builders installed 10 million feet of electric cable, enough to reach the International Space Station more than 7 times. There are also 4 million feet of high-tech fiber optic cable aboard the Ford.
  • The new design of two nuclear reactors give the Ford a massive power upgrade – 250 per cent as much electrical capacity than previous aircraft carriers
  • It took 5,000 American shipbuilders to complete the construction at a cost of $12.9 billion.


This kind of vehicle brought in Russian ekranoplan utilizes purported ground impact – additional lift of expansive wings when in closeness to the surface.bnvbn-min

Therefore they have been intended to go at a most extreme of three meters over the ocean however in the meantime could give take off, stable “flight” and safe “arriving” in states of up to 5-meter waves.

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These specialties were initially created by the Soviet Union as fast military transports, and were construct for the most part in light of the shores of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea.
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Ekranoplan Aircraft Carrier Project
In 2005 specialties of this sort have been ordered by the International Marine Organization so they likely ought to be viewed as flying ships instead of swimming planes.
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It is additionally intriguing to note that this airplane is one of the biggest ever worked, with a length of 73,8 meters (contrasting and 73 of Airbus A380
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The folks over at English Russia figure this is another task to examine if the Ekranoplan outline could be incorporated with a plane carrying warship.
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Seeing as the “Enormous Luns” idea never truly took off (no play on words planned) then it would appear that this one is remaining focused planning phase.

The Lun-class ekranoplan (NATO reporting name Duck) is a ground effect vehicle (GEV) designed by Rostislav Evgenievich Alexeyev and used by the Soviet and Russian navies from 1987 until sometime in the late 1990s.It flew using the lift generated by the ground effect of its large wings when close to the surface of the water—about 4 metres (13 ft) or less. Although they might look similar and have related technical characteristics, ekranoplans like the Lun are not aircraftseaplaneshovercraft, nor hydrofoils–ground effect is a separate technology altogether. The International Maritime Organization classifies these vehicles as maritime ships
When the Soviet Union started developing their massive ekranoplan or “flying ship” dubbed ‘KM’ in the mid-1960s, the CIA was so scared that it developed a drone specifically to spy on the KM. Bewildered Western military experts dubbed it the “Caspian Sea Monster.” It was followed by the Lun-class ekranoplan outfitted with six Moskit anti-ship missiles. The Lun was deployed in 1987, and remained in service until the 1990s.




America's fleet of aircraft carriers is presently two short of that number, comprised of older 'Nimitz-class' vessels. Adding just one more after the Ford would get Trump to an even dozen.


'We're going to have the finest equipment in the world. Planes, ships and everything else,' he pledged.He said a renewed emphasis on building up the U.S. military 'to prevent war, and if necessary to fight war.'And in a campaign-style flourish, he said he meant to do 'only one thing' if the U.S. has to fight.'You know what that is?' he asked. 'Win!' came a shouted reply that echoed to the water.
President Donald Trump promised a massive new military building on Thursday, speaking below deck on the USS Gerald R. Ford



And in a campaign-style flourish, he said he meant to do 'only one thing' if the U.S. has to fight. 'You know what that is?' he asked. 'Win!' came a shouted reply that echoed to the water
And in a campaign-style flourish, he said he meant to do 'only one thing' if the U.S. has to fight. 'You know what that is?' he asked. 'Win!' came a shouted reply that echoed to the water



The president sported a new flight jacket and cap as he toured America's newest nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
The president sported a new flight jacket and cap as he toured America's newest nuclear-powered aircraft carrier



The president praised the builders of the USS Gerald R. Ford on Thursday and promised that 'we're going to soon have more coming' 



Trump descended below the deck on an aircraft elevator, appearing next to a helicopter in a dramatic campaign rally-style moment
Trump descended below the deck on an aircraft elevator, appearing next to a helicopter in a dramatic campaign rally-style moment



The effect of Trump's entrance was magician-like as a wall suddenly opened up and Trump descended on a huge platform while 'God Bless the U.S.A.' played
The effect of Trump's entrance was magician-like as a wall suddenly opened up and Trump descended on a huge platform while 'God Bless the U.S.A.' played'This is a great lookin' ship!': Trump on the USS Gerald R Ford
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    Trump vowed that any nation who dared to challenge his Pentagon's power would be 'in big, big trouble' and that he would deliver 'more aircraft' and 'modernized capabilities.'
    Wearing a flight jacket with a 'commander in chief' patch and an admiral's cap bearing the letters 'POTUS' on the back, the president made a dramatic rally-style entrance for the ages.
    As 3,000 sailors and shipbuilders heard 'Hail to the Chief' echo off the walls of a below-deck hangar bay, an aircraft elevator descended in seconds – revealing a helicopter, the president, and former first daughter Susan Ford Bales.
    'God Bless the U.S.A.' played. And Trump boasted that the Ford is 'four and a half acres of combat power and sovereign U.S. territory' for which 'there is no competition.'
    'You stand on that deck – you feel like you're standing on a very big piece of land!' he said, calling the ship 'a place.'


    Susan Ford Bales introduced Trump, saying that 'very soon 100,000 tons of the most powerful warship ever known will report for duty to her commander-in-chief'
    He is in coastal Virginia to make the case for a major buildup of the nation's military, beginning a trend that will add 80 new ships to the U.S. Navy's current complement of about 270.
    The Ford is a $12.9 billion aircraft carrier that is expected to be commissioned this year after cost overruns and delays. He met with the carrier's builders and a complement of sailors before speaking to a sea of humanity gathered to see the commander-in-chief in action.
    A draft budget plan released earlier this week by the White House would add $54 billion to the Pentagon's projected budget, a 10 percent increase. 
    'To keep America safe, we must provide the men and women of the United States military with the tools they need to prevent war – if they must – they have to fight and they only have to win,' Trump said in his address to Congress on Tuesday night. 
    'I am sending Congress a budget that rebuilds the military, eliminates the defense sequester and calls for one of the largest increases in national defense spending in American history.' 
    A few thousand sailors and shipbuilding workers gathered in the cavernous below-deck Hangar Bay No. 2 to await the president's arrival.
    Naval personnel wore their working uniforms. Builders wore hard hats – white for men and a few pink ones for women.
    Susan Ford Bales, the late President Ford's only daughter, introduced Trump.
    'Very soon,' she said, '100,000 tons of the most powerful warship ever known will report for duty to her commander-in-chief.' 




    'To keep America safe, we must provide the men and women of the United States military with the tools they need to prevent war – if they must – they have to fight and they only have to win,' Trump said in his address to Congress on Tuesday night
    'To keep America safe, we must provide the men and women of the United States military with the tools they need to prevent war – if they must – they have to fight and they only have to win,' Trump said in his address to Congress on Tuesday night
    Sailors aboard the Ford hooted and hollered when they thought Trump was landing on deck in a V-22 osprey aircraft, but he hadn't yet left the Oval Office en route to Newport News, Virginia
    A giant video screen showed an osprey landing on-deck more than a half-hour before Trump was to arrive.
    Bells tolled and a collective hoot rang out – for 5 seconds, until the video operator cut the camera feed.

    The USS Gerald R. Ford  is a $12.9 billion vessel, the first of the Navy's next generation of aircraft carriers
    The USS Gerald R. Ford  is a $12.9 billion vessel, the first of the Navy's next generation of aircraft carriersShareThe Gerald R. Ford, a 100,000-ton behemoth that will house more than 4,600 sailors after its test runs this spring, boasts a high-tech electromagnetic catapult that engineers say will operate fast enough to allow the Navy to launch 25 per cent more more flying missions than existing Nimitz Class carriers.
    But last year a leaked Pentagon memo revealed that the Ford's builders were having trouble launching and recovering planes, as well as conducting air-traffic control, running self-defense protocols and moving munitions around the vessel.
    'Unless these issues are resolved ... they will significantly limit CVN-78's ability to conduct combat operations,' a Pentagon official wrote then, referring to the Ford's official military designation.
    Republican Sen. John McCain, who chairs the Senate Armed Services Committee, said at the time that delays in the Ford's construction and delivery were 'unacceptable.'
    McCain said the Ford-class carrier program was a 'case study in why our acquisition system must be reformed – unrealistic business cases, poor cost estimates, new systems rushed to production, concurrent design and construction, and problems testing systems to demonstrate promised capability.'
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     


    The US Navy can follow Russia with the stacks of short-range nuclear/cruise  missiles and a company of marines in light attack vehicles meant to be an amphivious assault in a sea-skimming sneak attack. Nobody really doubts the utility of large-deck carriers. There's nothing else like them, and the United States is the only nation that operates a fleet big enough to keep three or more carriers continuously deployed at all times. However, two issues have come up over and over again since the Cold War ended that have led at least some observers to question why carriers are the centerpiece of America's naval fleet.  One concern is that they cost too much. The other is that they are vulnerable to attack.The cost issue is a canard. It only costs a fraction of one-percent of the federal budget to build, operate and sustain all of the Navy's carriers -- and nobody has offered a credible alternative for accomplishing U.S. military objectives in their absence. Critics say carriers are more expensive than they seem because an accurate accounting would include the cost of their escort vessels, but the truth of the matter is that the Navy would need a lot more of those warships if it had to fight conflicts without carriers.The vulnerability issue is harder to address because putting 5,000 sailors and six dozen high-performance aircraft on a $10 billion warship creates what military experts refer to as a very "lucrative" target.  Taking one out would be a big achievement for America's enemies, and a big setback for America's military. 


    The original "KM" ekranoplan – designed to travel at high speeds just 150m above the ocean on a cushion of air – was created in the mid-1960s and is arguably one of the oddest weapons to emerge during the Cold War. The "Lun-class" follow-on was outfitted with six missile tubes and entered service with the Soviet navy in the late 1980s.The Lun was powered with eight Kuznetsov NK-87 turbofans, mounted on forward canards, each producing 127.4 kN (28,600 lbf) of thrust. It had a flying boat hull with a large deflecting plate at the bottom to provide a "step" for takeoff.[4] It had a maximum cruising speed of 340 miles per hour (550 km/h).[2]Equipped for anti-surface warfare, it carried the P-270 Moskit (Mosquito) guided missile. Six missile launchers were mounted in pairs on the dorsal surface of its fuselage with advanced tracking systems mounted in its nose and tail.[5]The only model of this class ever built, the MD-160, entered service with the Black Sea Fleet in 1987. It was retired in the late 1990s and is now sitting unused at a naval station in Kaspiysk.[2][6][7]Another version of Lun was planned for use as a mobile field hospital for rapid deployment to any ocean or coastal location. It was named the Spasatel ("Rescuer"). Work was about 90% done, when the military funding ended, and it was never completed.[3][8]








    The new 'groundskimmer' is a huge craft capable of carrying 500 tonnes of cargo in a single trip. To do this, is uses an effect known as ground effect to trap a cushion of air underneath its giant wing. Pictured, wind tunnel tests of the strange design

    The new 'groundskimmer' is a huge craft capable of carrying 500 tonnes of cargo in a single trip. To do this, is uses an effect known as ground effect to trap a cushion of air underneath its giant wing. Pictured, wind tunnel tests of the strange design
    'The layout combines functions of a wing with those of a body to take optimal advantage of the aircraft interior and to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency,' said Russia's Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute, which is developing the project. 
    'The aircraft is intended for intercontinental transportation of large amounts of cargo — up to 500 tonnes, including transportation in approved containers.' 

    HOW IT WORKS 

    The strange craft is known as a Ground Effect Vehicle (GEV). 
    It uses short, wide wings to trap a layer of air between the undersurface of the aircraft and the ground.
    This creates vortices and downdraughts to generate more lift and less drag at very low altitudes - letting a plane carry heavy loads with far less fuel.
    The radical design combines the wing and the fuselage of the aircraft, yet only reaches an altitude of between three and 12 m (10 and 40 ft) over water and land, while still being able to use existing runways.
    It would be loaded with containers in compartments inside a wing and loaded via flap doors of fore-sections (leading edges) in the aircraft’s center, the scientists say.
    As part of the concept research, a model has already created and tested by the Institute’s specialists in a subsonic wind tunnel. 
    The strange craft is known as a Ground Effect Vehicle (GEV). 
    The unique design  would be loaded with containers in compartments inside a wing and loaded via flap doors of fore-sections (leading edges) in the aircraft’s center, the scientists say

    The unique design would be loaded with containers in compartments inside a wing and loaded via flap doors of fore-sections (leading edges) in the aircraft’s center, the scientists say
    It uses short, wide wings to trap a layer of air between the undersurface of the aircraft and the ground.


    • In winning wars, boots on the ground is essential to occupy enemy territory. With a complement of 40 GXV-T with 4 to 6 infantry personnel each,  it can be used as a super  amphivious assault ship carrying troops aboard on special type vehicles like the one below.
    • US Army reveals radical new self-driving troop carrier: GXV-T concept can keep soldiers sealed inside and even automatically reconfigure its armour to 'bounce off' missile attacks.


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